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Astronomical models were used to predict the relative positions of celestial objects over the course of a year for agricultural, religious, and astrological reasons.

The diurnal movements in which everything rotates together around the Earth, or equivalently (and it was recognized as equivalent by early Islamic astronomers, like the 10th century al-Biruni, and the contemporaries and predecessors he was responding to) the Earth rotates on its axis, are not represented here, as they'd merely introduce an eye watering strobe effect.

  1. Ptolemy, Roman Empire, Egypt, 90-168.
  2. Ibn al-Shatir, Mamluk Sultanate, Sryia, 1304-1375.
  3. Nicolas, Prussian Empire, Poland, 1473-1543.
  4. Tycho, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark, 1546-1601.
  5. Kepler, Holy Roman Empire, Germany, 1571-1630.
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